Why Silver

 

SILVER HISTORY

 

The relationship we have with silver dates back to antiquity. Throughout history, silver has consistently been used to restrict the spread of human disease by incorporation into articles used in daily life. The earliest recorded use of silver for therapeutic purposes dates back to the Han Dynasty in China circa. 1500 B.C.E.[1] Hippocrates, considered the father of medicine, used silver preparations for the treatment of ulcers and to promote wound healing[2].  Herodotus, the father of history, accounts that Persian kings, including Cirrus, would only drink water that was transported in silver containers, because of their understanding that silver preserves water. The ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and others also were recorded to have used silver in one form or another to preserve food and water[3].

The ancient civilizations understood the powerful properties of this metal but didn't understand how it worked. Silver's amazing anti-microbial properties is the result of the Oligodynamic effect (from Greek oligos "few", and dynamis "force") it is a biocidal effect of metals. It is a blanket term used to represent silver's mechanisms of action. There are three known mechanisms by which silver acts on microbes. Firstly, silver cations can form pores and puncture the bacterial cell wall by reacting with the peptidoglycan component [4]. Secondly, silver ions can enter into the bacterial cell, both inhibiting cellular respiration and disrupting metabolic pathways resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species [5]. Lastly, once in the cell silver can also disrupt DNA and its replication cycle[6]

 

SILVERS CURRENT USE

 

Currently, this lustrous metal has been used in modern times very similarly to the way that it was used in ancient times. For example, the International Space Station uses a silver ion system to treat its water[7] and a company in Brazil adds silver nano-particles to its plastic milk jugs to increase the shelf life of its milk[8]. Silver is currently being used in, wound dressings[9], endotracheal tubes[10], catheters[11],  pick lines, and several other medical devices to reduce the growth and spread of harmful microorganisms.  

 

WHY WE USE SILVER

 

Silver Ox Bottle is utilizing the power of this amazing metal to “Inhibit the growth of bacterial odors.” Legally, we cannot make any claims that it will help preserve and reduce spoiling of contents inside of the bottle or help reduce the spread of germs or microbes[12]. In order to make those claims, we would have to register the product as a pesticide. This type of registration is expensive and requires extensive testing.

Now that you know some of silvers historical relevance throughout history and how it has been used in present day medicine we hope you see why it is truly a value added feature in Silver Ox Bottle.

White SOB Bottle.JPG

 

REFERENCES

[1] Yamada K. The Origins of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, The Origins of Decoction. International Research Center for Japanese Studies; Kyoto, Japan: 1998. The two phases of the formation of ancient medicine; p. 154. [Google Scholar]

[2] Hill WR, Pillsbury DM. Argyria–The Pharmacology of Silver.Baltimore. Williams & Wilkins, 1939

[3] Grier N. Silver and its compounds. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfec-tion, Sterilization and Preservation. Philadelphia. Lea & Febi-ger, 1968:375–398.

[4] Jung WK, Koo HC, Kim KW, Shin S, Kim SH, Park YH. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of the silver ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(7):2171-2178. doi:10.1128/AEM.02001-07 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18245232/

[5] Morones-Ramirez JR, Winkler JA, Spina CS, Collins JJ. Silver enhances antibiotic activity against gram-negative bacteria. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(190):190ra81. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006276 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23785037/

 

[6]Yakabe Y., Sano T., Ushio H., Yasunaga T. Kinetic studies of the interaction between silver ion and deoxyribonucleic acid. Chem. Lett. 1980;9:373–376. doi: 10.1246/cl.1980.373. https://www.journal.csj.jp/doi/abs/10.1246/cl.1980.373

[7] Callahan, M. R., Adam, N. M., Roberts, M. S., Garland, J. L., Sager, J. C., & Pickering, K. D. (2007). Assessment of Silver Based Disinfection Technology for CEV and Future US Spacecraft. SAE Technical Paper Series. doi:10.4271/2007-01-3258 https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20180005617.pdf

[8] Callahan, M. R., Adam, N. M., Roberts, M. S., Garland, J. L., Sager, J. C., & Pickering, K. D. (2007). Assessment of Silver Based Disinfection Technology for CEV and Future US Spacecraft. SAE Technical Paper Series. doi:10.4271/2007-01-3258 https://plasticsinpackaging.com/online/silver-nanoparticles-double-fresh-milk-shelf-life/

[9] Dissemond, Joachim; Böttrich, Johannes Georg; Braunwarth, Horst; Hilt, Jörg; Wilken, Patricia; Münter, Karl-Christian (2017). "Evidence for silver in wound care - meta-analysis of clinical studies from 2000-2015". Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft15 (5): 524–535. doi:10.1111/ddg.13233PMID 28485879.

[10] Tokmaji, George; Vermeulen, Hester; Müller, Marcella CA; Kwakman, Paulus HS; Schultz, Marcus J.; Zaat, Sebastian AJ (2011). "Silver coated endotracheal tubes for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients". In Tokmaji, George (ed.). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewsdoi:10.1002/14651858.CD009201.

[11] Schumm, K.; Lam, T.B.L. (2008). "Types of urethral catheters for management of short-term voiding problems in hospitalized adults: A short version cochrane review". Neurourology and Urodynamics. 27 (8): 738–746. doi:10.1002/nau.20645. PMID 18951451.

[12] https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-04/documents/pr2000-1.pdf